Beam theory: Stiffness of combined loads

Beam theory: stiffness of combined loads Featured image

Introduction Most beam theory examples use perfect loading conditions with often a single load. But what happens when the loads are not applied at the perfect location or when a combination of loads is applied? This page aims to give some feel for the change in stiffness by giving two examples; tension/compression combined with bending […]

PiezoKnob: Actuation based on inertia and stick-slip

PiezoKnob - Actuation based on inertia and stick-slip Featured image

Introduction The PiezoKnob is a stepping actuator with nanometer level resolution which, when powered down, combines a high holding force with sub-nanometer stability. This is of particular interest for high precision equipment operated in vacuum and cryogenic environments where heat cannot be removed by convection and cooling power is typically limited. The inertia & stick-slip […]

Force sensor design: Example

Force sensor design: Example Featured image

Introduction A force sensor can be obtained from a well-matched combination of a known stiffness and a displacement or strain sensor. Typically commercially available force sensors have been designed for high stiffness (> 1e6 N/m) to measure large forces (>> 10 N) which makes them unsuitable for applications requiring mN or even sub-mN resoluti0n. For […]

Cryogenic positioning stage: High resonance

CryoPosStage High Resonance Featured image

Introduction This XYZ positioning stage is specifically developed for cryogenic applications where high resonance frequencies are required. Furthermore this stage can be used in a scanning mode for small movements around a given set point. Pro’s & Con’s Operational down to 1 K High resonance frequency Sub nanometer resolution scanning mode Play/backlash free Antimagnetic materials […]

Third order point-to-point motion profile

Third order p2p motionprofile Featured image

Introduction In many mechatronic applications where a movement from A to B needs to be performed, a third order point to point motion profile is used.To enable early insight in the relevant parameters of a motion profile it is useful to calculate and visualize the relevant parameters (position, speed, acceleration and jerk). This sheet provides […]

Structural damping properties of mechanical systems

Structural damping of mechanical systems Featured image

Introduction Each mechanical system from actuator to end-effector comprises damping. This sheet provides some insight how to predict this damping. Damping depends on many factors, such as material, shape, environment, velocity, etc. and therefore it is difficult to predict. Sub- super- and critical damping A critically damped system converges as fast as possible without oscillating […]

Structural damping definitions

Structural damping definitions Featured image

Introduction Every part of a mechanical system, from actuator to end-effector, comprises damping. This sheet gives an overview of ways damping can be defined and how these definitions are related to the linear dimensionless damping coefficient $zeta$. What is damping? Damping in mechanical systems is the extraction of mechanical energy from the motion in the […]

Motion control: Basic feedback design

Motion control - Basic feedback design Featured image

Introduction Motion systems are generally designed to be operated with feedback design control. A common way in industry to design such a controller is carried out by loop shaping, i.e. manually design the open-loop frequency response and interactively evaluate the results on the basis of closed-loop responses (e.g. sensitivity function). Benefits of this approach: It […]

Sag compensated contact pin

Sag compensated contact pin Featured image

Introduction Typically struts and leaf springs demonstrate a parasitic sag-movement when moving sideways. In some cases this parasitic motion is unwanted. Then a rigid tip can be implemented on the elastic element. By designing the proper tip radius, the parasitic motion can be perfectly compensated resulting in a straight-line guided motion. Formulas The kinematic behavior […]

Zero stiffness linear guidance

Zero stiffness linear guidance Featured image

Introduction This sheet provides a design of parallel leaf spring guidance with adjustable stiffness from positive to negative, to benefit its application. Concept A parallel leaf spring guidance is a linear guidance which comprises no play and its (relatively low) stiffness is well predictable (see Precision Point sheet: 2 Leaf springs in parallel). A buckled […]