Common ceramics: Selection and properties

Materials & Manufacturing

Introduction

To match different ceramic properties to an application, this Precision Point sheet can be used. After selection, this sheet can also be used for the mechanical properties of these materials.

Selection

MaterialApplicationColorProperties
Aluminum OxideMachine components
Furnace parts
Thermocouple tubes
WhiteConventional ceramic
Electrical insulator
Wear resistant
SapphireOptical precision componentsTransparentTransparent
RubyPrecision balls
Ball valves
Red transparent
(Chromium oxide impurities)
High surface quality
Chemical resistant
Boron CarbideNozzles
Dies
Armour plates
BlackHigh hardness
Wear resistant
Low density
Aluminum NitrideHeat sinks
Substrates
Grey translucentGood heat conductivity
Chemical resitance
Boron NitrideCrucibles
High-voltage insulator
High temperature positioning tools
WhiteGood machinability
Relatively soft
Electrical insulator
α-Silicon CarbideSliding bearings (SiC on SiC)
Mechanical seals
Cilinders/plunjers
BlackHigh thermal conductivity
Wear resistant
Silicon NitrideBall bearings
Dies
Crucibles
GreyWear resistant
High strength and toughness
Good thermal shock resistant
Zirconium OxideWelding pins
Positioning tools
Machine components
WhiteImpact resistant
Heat insulator
High strength and toughness

Specific properties*

Material Aluminum OxideBoron CarbideAluminum NitrideBoron Nitrideα-Silicon CarbideSilicon NitrideZirconium Oxide
Al2O3
92
Al2O3
99.7
Al2O3
99.8
Sapphire /
Ruby
Bl4lCAlNBNSiCSi3N4ZrO2 TZPZrO2 PSZ
Young’s modulusGPa310390406426 / 46245016822410300172210
Poisson ratio-0.240.230.220.310.170.310.250.140.260.330.30
Yield strength (σ 0.2)MPa35237537540029470380584500
Densityg/cm33.643.853.953.992.513.302.053.103.266.055.74
Thermal expansionppm/K8.28.28.25 / 8.55.64443.21010
Thermal conductivityW/mK12.5303023.1 / 25.29018040110352.92.5
Electrical resistivityΩcm10141014101810141011012101510-1001012> 108> 108
Dielectric Constant-10.39.09.89.57.14.110.2
Dielectric StrengthkV/mm21.3308.715-5040200

*All parameters are for indication; properties are supplier-specific and should be checked.

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